3D is a concept that starts from the human mode of perception of the external environment. Today, 3D is used in almost every field, ranging from fashion to large construction works. In this file, there is everything you need to know about this concept and its use in the modern world.
3D, we talk a lot aboutthree dimensional infographicespecially in recent years when the audiovisual world has used it in the various creations (animated, movies, games). However, 3D is more than that. Painters, fashion designers or building engineers use it as a kind of work tool. Overview !
What is a 3D computer graphics?
Each of our eyes perceives the world with a flat view. It is the brain that takes care of merging these images to make a three-dimensional image. This conception, technology has exploited it. For years, the 3D has become a commonplace term, but what is it really?
A 3D computer graphic is a three-dimensional image created from a computer software. It goes beyond the 2D design which offers a flat image. Certainly, the design of a three-dimensional computer graphics requires specific software. But it is still necessary to be able to use such software to output the desired image, with all the required criteria.
Indeed, you have to be a real artist to be able to create a 3D model. This model is composed of a wired as well as polygons. The model will then be structured and shaped according to the desired rendering.
Note that there are pseudo 3D graphics. These are used in particular in certain video games which opt for projections of three-dimensional restricted environments. The objective may be entirely stylistic, but pseudo 3D is also used to improve the performance of the game engine.
How to get a 3D infographic?
As mentioned above, the creation of 3D imagery requires the use of specific software. Originally, the infographic was created only by equations combined withmathematical algorithms. Over time, the field has evolved.
Thus, the creation of current 3D imagery requires software with a graphical user interface or graphic interface. Such software offers 3D computer graphics that do not involve any direct interaction between the creator and the mathematical properties of the image.
To obtain a 3D computer graphics, it is necessary to start from a model that we will shape to obtain a specific rendering.
The modelization is the first step in creating stereoscopic imagery. Those are the polygons which give the shapes, also called faces of a model. These forms thus fill the wired to give rise to three-dimensional imagery. We will come back to this later.
Let’s take a simple example, a cube. This is basically made up of polygons and wireframes. The corners of the cube house dots and wireframe lines. In contrast, sides are polygons or faces.
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Applying different textures
The images will then be applied to the polygons, after being structured. This will offer a final rendering, unlike the starting model. Applied textures include graphics simple, a mapping of bosses and reflection cards. It is the combination of applied textures that will give the final shape of the 3D image.
The graphics show the artwork in the final rendering. Bump mapping brings out the different reliefs, while reflection maps bring out the shine of the textures.
The final rendering
Apart from adding the different texturesyou also need a lighting in order to give reflections and shadows to the model. It is the set obtained, that is to say the scene thus created, which will give rise to the 3D computer graphics. The final rendering is obtained from a composition, followed by a compilation of the elements of the scene. The resulting image file can be used for sharing and viewing purposes.
The modeling process until obtaining the final rendering, in particular the various additions, is rather time-consuming. In addition, it requires a lot of processing power. As a result, you need a whole arsenal of computers dedicated solely to this purpose.
What is a 3D model?
Modeling is the first phase of designing a 3D computer graphics. The product obtained at the end of this phase is called a 3D model. It is a mathematical representation of anything three-dimensional.
The 3D model can be used as such to visualize an object or to perform simulation or non-graphical computer calculations. As for the3d printingit consists of giving a physical representation real three-dimensional of the model. In this case, the match may have a limitation with respect to the virtual model.
Usually, engineers and artists design a 3D model. To do this, they use 3D modeling tools such as dedicated software packages also called modeling applications or modellers.
The design of the 3D model starts from points called vertices. These define the shape the model will take when the process is complete.
What about modeling tools
The modeling tools as for them, they serve primarily to designthen to modifier the model through the mesh 3D. Changes can be a subtraction, addition, stretch, etc. A model can be modified at will and can be enlarged or rotated in order to obtain a better view.
After designing the model, 3D modelers can export the resulting models to files. The files can, in turn, be imported or copied into various applications, depending on their compatibility.
While some modeling tools present basic functionality such as adding, subtracting, or stretching, others allow much more than that. Indeed, there are 3D modeling software packages that support model animation.
Computer-aided design software can also perform the functions of a 3D modeler. This is why they are found in computer-aided engineering, computer-aided manufacturing, 3D printing, etc.
What sectors use 3D computer graphics?
As we have already seen above, 3D computer graphics have become commonplace in almost all industries, ranging from entertainment to construction. We will see some of the sectors that seem to use 3D a lot. 3D computer graphics are also useful for certain activities involving VR and AR.
Cinematography has already opted for 3D imaging for years. If you’ve ever heard the famous green background (or blue background), it’s probably because directors use images created by computer or Computer graphics.
Marvel, Disney or Netflix mainly present films where we witness the marriage of real images and CGI. They were able to conquer the world of cinematography with all these rather futuristic images such as in the saga star wars or Spider Man. On the other hand, children and even adults love anime such as zootopia or The Lion King.
However, we cannot ignore the efforts made during the conception until the release of these films. Some scenes start from a three-dimensional design, taken, of course, from the real world. The production of all these 3D images begins with 3D modeling.
In the field of architecture, engineers use specific software packages. These software packages allow a good visualization of the project and, and therefore, of any improvements as it progresses.
In computer-aided design or CAD, for example, engineers opt for 3D modeling to create a 3D image of the project. Visualizations and modifications can then be made over time, until the desired final rendering is obtained.
Virtual reality and augmented reality also have a big place in the engineering sector. Today, there are many dedicated software packages used in architecture using VR, Lumion or Unreal Engine in this case. Other modeling software uses augmented reality, such as Augment and Smartreality (available in both AR and VR).
Remote design and collaboration tools
Another way to benefit from 3D computer graphics in the professional world is its use for visualizations and remote collaborations. It is a virtual world, accessible by connecting to the Internet, where a professional group can design a project.
We are talking about a collaborative metaverse. The metaverse is thus the virtual world where the members of the group will meet (engineers, artists, customers, etc.). The project will come to life from a 3D model. The model obtained will then be shaped according to the criteria imposed by the collaborators. Omniverse, the collaborative metaverse created by Nvidia is a concrete example.
VR and AR video games
VR and AR video games such as Pokémon Go continues to attract young and old. Their particularity lies in the fact that they are completely immersive. What type of entertainment interactive part of different 3D models.
The characters and avatars, as well as the environment where the adventures take place have all been taken from the real world and added some brilliant futuristic ideas.
However, these are not all the fields in which 3D computer graphics are used, there are many others such as health or space exploration.