the evolution of the teaching profession in 10 infographics

More than 1.2 million National Education staff return to school this Wednesday. They will be joined on Thursday by 12.7 million students. A few days before the start of the new school year, the DEPP (Department of evaluation, forecasting and performance) and the SIES (Information systems and statistical studies), the statistical services of the National Education, publish each year the key figures of the education system. The 2022 report was published at the end of August. It analyzes data from recent years up to the start of the 2021-2022 school year and devotes an entire chapter to education personnel.

The digital editorial staff of France Inter immersed themselves in this report. Increase in non-teaching staff, women now in the majority in management positions, the aging of staff or their mobility: discover in ten infographics the evolution of education professions, between 2015 and 2021.

Over 114,000 additional staff since 2015

Among the 1.2 million staff working in National Education in 2021-2022, the vast majority are teachers: 717,800 in the public sector and 141,200 in the private sector under contract. “In the public sector, the number of teachers working with students has increased by 1.6% since the start of the 2015 school year. In the private sector, the increase is more limited (+0.7%)”note the rapporteurs. They are a little less numerous in 2021 than in 2020.

The increase is greater in the number of National Education staff carrying out a mission other than teaching (management, administration, health, support, inspection, etc.) since the increase is 44.7% since 2015 (see below).

Sharp increase in non-teaching staff

The rapporteurs see the increase in non-teaching staff as the consequence of two measures: the “sustained recruitment of support staff for students with disabilities (AESH)” and that of work-study students, in 2021, for teaching support missions. Regarding other non-teaching staff, ie in administration, logistics, health staff or even management, there is overall stagnation in the workforce.

The share of non-tenured teachers among teaching staff has increased since 2015

Of the 1.2 million staff, not all hold their positions. “Slightly more than 1% of teachers in public first degree are non-tenured, compared to 16% of teachers in private first degree under contract”indicates the report. In secondary education too, there are more non-holders in the private sector under contract (20%) than in the public sector (9%).

It is the missions that do not directly concern education that hire the most non-permanent teachers as a percentage. Since 2017, this has even concerned more than one in two staff. “Educational assistance alone includes 177,200 people, exclusively contractual. Among them, those accompanying students with disabilities (AESH) have been growing strongly since 2015. Consequently, the share of non-tenured agents in the missions non-teaching is on the rise”write the reporters.

Large majority women

Women are in the majority in most National Education missions, and particularly in support for people with disabilities (92.4% in 2021) and primary education (86.4% in 2021).

Until 2016, however, this was not the case in the management or inspection branch. The increase continues and they were in the majority at 54.5% in 2021. For the other missions, the evolution has been stable in recent years.

Slight aging of staff

In 2021-2022, National Education staff were on average 44 years old. “Whatever the level of education, teachers are generally younger in the public sector than in the private sector under contract, although the gaps are tending to narrow“, say the reporters. “Teachers assigned to the first degree are on average 43 years old in the public sector against 44 years old in the private sector and, respectively, 45 years old against 46 years old in the second degree.”

The youngest staff are those in charge of educational assistance or security prevention assistance, with an average age of 29 in 2021. Those responsible for supporting people with disabilities were on average 45 years old. “People on management or inspection assignments are on average 52 years old, i.e. 6.6 years older than those in other non-teaching assignments (administrative, logistical, health and social, teaching support, education)” .

Since 2015, there has been a slight aging of all staff, by one year in six years.

The retirement age has increased by one year between 2015 and 2021

In 2021, nearly 23,300 public and private personnel retired. They left on average at the age of 62. In details, “many public primary school teachers have been primary school teachers for at least fifteen years and as such benefit from the possibility of leaving early at age 57“, note the rapporteurs. In 2021, they left on average at 60.5 years old, men and women combined. In the first degree of the private sector, they retired almost five months later on average. The teachers of the second public, private and non-teaching degree holders are on average about 63 years old when they retire.

This average retirement age for National Education staff increased by around one year between 2015 and 2021 in all corps, for both men and women.

Just over 2,500 euros net per month for a teacher

The report also makes it possible to detail the remuneration of teachers. In 2020, they earned an average of 2,600 euros net per month in the public sector and 2,200 euros net per month in the private sector under contract (including part-timers). In the private sector under contract, teachers receive on average lower salaries than their counterparts in the public sector, in particular due to more frequent part-time or partial work and higher pension contributions than in the public sector.

All teachers received an average of 2,532 euros net per month in 2020, but as in any salary grid, there are disparities. The lowest-paid 10% received a maximum of 1,707 euros net monthly, while the highest-paid 10% received a minimum of 3,439 euros. Contract teachers are less well paid, on average 1,562 euros net per month in primary education and 1,829 euros in secondary education.

Otherwise, “female teachers receive lower salaries than their male counterparts. On average, a public teacher earns 0.11 times less than a public teacher. The ratio is 0.08 in the private sector under contract”adds the report.

A slight decrease in mobility

Few tenured teachers change department and academy to which they are assigned. At the start of the 2021 academic year, this represented 1.1% of public primary school teachers (compared to 1.2% in 2015) and 1.7% of public secondary school teachers (compared to 2.2% in 2015). “These mobility rates amount to 16.9% and 8.1% respectively, including changes of establishment that do not involve a change of department or academy.states the report.

In contrast, “most of the new holders change establishment after their internship for their first assignment as holders: 96.4% in the first degree and 92.6% in the second degree“.

The rapporteurs also note that teachers “more often have less than six years of seniority in their school or college when they are in priority education than in the others”.

Arrivals to Loire-Atlantique, departures from Seine-Saint-Denis

The migration rate corresponds to the “difference between entries and exits from an area (academy or department) during the period compared to the average population of the area over the period“. This map does not include the movements of agents who did not have an assignment in November 2020 and/or November 2021, nor those of new holders. This rate is positive in Loire-Atlantique (1, 5%) because there were more entries than exits, and vice versa for Seine-Saint-Denis (-2.6%).

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